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Energy Usage in Lighting Systems 

A Report on the Power Used in Lighting 
Commercial Buildings in Massachusetts 






Prepared by Massachusetts 
State Building Code Commission 



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Energy Usage in Lighting Systems 

A Report on the Power Used in Lighting 
Commercial Buildings in Massachusetts 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
Edward J. King, Governor 

Byron J. Matthews, Secretary 

Executive Office of Communities and Development 

State Building Code Commission 
William P. Kramer, Chairman 
Charles J. Dinezio, Executive Director 

Joseph S. Fitzpatrick, Secretary 
Executive Office of Energy Resources 

April, 1981 



GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT 
COLLECTION 

JAN 04 (SCO 

University oi w»— - 
Depository wPJ 



Publication of this document approved by 
John Manton, Acting State Purchasing Agent 
1500-5-81-16-3794 
Estimated cost per copy $.90 



Table of Contents 



1 Introduction 

2 Code Establishment and Requirements 

Outlines the institutional setting within which the lighting 
power information was collected 

5 Data File 

Discusses how the audit information was verified and was 
transformed into a data base on lighting power use 

8 Statistical Summary 

' Introduces the results of the statistical analysis and evaluates 
some of the data 

11 Tables 

Provides a graphical presentation of the watts per sguare foot 
results for specific building use groups and for three categories 
of space usage 

12 Table I - Office Building 

13 Table II - Off ice/ Warehouse 

14 Table III - School/Library 

15 Table IV -Hospital 

16 Table V - Retail Less than 5,000 sguare feet 

17 Table VI - Retail Greater than 5,000 sguare feet 

18 Table VII - Category A 

19 Table VIII- Category B 

20 Table IX - Category C 

21 Appendix A 

Watts Per Square Foot Statistics 

27 Appendix B 

Lighting Power Audit Forms, Brochure, and Regulation 



Acknowledgments 

Several members of the State Building Code Commission staff 
participated in the promulgation, development, and implementation 
of this regulation. Among those past and present are David R. Miller, 
Robert J. Sheridan, George A. Krasco, Laura P. Parkin, Peter K. 
Lew, and Conrad Jordan. 

Much time and effort was placed on the development of a statistical 
data base. Many thanks to Raymond Richard, Joeann DeVeaux, and 
Peter Burke of the Executive Office of Communities and 
Development's Computer Center. 

The funding for this project was received from the U.S. Department 
of Energy through a grant by the Massachusetts Executive Office of 
Energy Resources. 

Dennis O'Reilly, with the help of Philip Sawyer, was responsible for 
the design and production of this document. 

This report was prepared in April, 1981 by Louise Ann Fleming, 
State Building Code Commission staff. 



Introduction 



The information presented in this report was collected by the 
Massachusetts State Building Code Commission through a regulatory 
process designed to conserve energy in commercial buildings. This 
regulation sought energy efficiency in lighting systems by 
establishing a watts per sguare foot building budget and by 
reguiring the submittal of an audit summarizing the lighting system 
through the delineation of six broad categories of space usages. 

The data was computerized for reporting purposes and statistical 
analysis because of the volume of audits received. The results of the 
analysis have prompted the use of the lighting audit data as a tool for 
understanding the energy consumption of building lighting systems. 

The purpose of this report is to apprise interested parties of the types 
of information available on the data base, present an initial 
evaluation of power consumption in commercial buildings, and 
encourage the use of the lighting audit data for continued analysis. 
The report includes a discussion of the statistics as well as graphs of 
the watts per sguare foot results for a variety of building types and 
space usages. 

As a preface to the data presentation, this report includes a brief 
history of the Code, an explanation of the information reguired on 
the audit forms, and a discussion of the usefulness of the data for 
assessing lighting usage. 



Code Establishment and Requirements 



The State Building Code Commission was established by statute in 
1972. It specified that the Commission would have the authority to 
research, develop, and promulgate a state- wide code for 
Massachusetts to provide uniformity in building standards for the 
state's 351 communities. In 1973, an amendment to that enabling 
legislation granted the Commission the authority to promulgate 
regulations to conserve energy through building design, 
construction, and operation. 

In 1975, Congress passed the Energy Policy and Conservation Act 
which, in part, provided incentives for the states to develop energy 
conservation programs with certain mandatory provisions. One such 
provision was lighting power conservation in buildings. The 
Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy Resources accepted the 
program and contracted with the State Building Code Commission to 
promulgate the lighting power regulations; the requirements of the 
program were more efficiently handled through the Commission due 
to its existing regulatory authority. 

The Lighting Code, which was adopted by the Commission in 1978, 
placed a lighting power budget on buildings based upon size and 
use. The Code regulated all non-residential new construction, 
additions, and renovations, as well as existing non-residential 
buildings over 10,000 square feet. Multi-tenant buildings complied 
on a tenant-by-tenant basis. 

The Commission sought to promulgate a performance-based code 
that would limit the amount of power used for illumination. 
Furthermore, it was imperative that the Code provide a method to 
easily calculate and substantiate compliance. For these reasons, the 
Commission developed a regulation that established a building 
budget based upon watts per square foot allowances for different 
space usages. 

The Lighting Power Audit 

The Lighting Code required the submittal of a lighting power audit. 
This audit divided the building into four interior and two exterior 
categories of space usage, determined a building budget through 
the multiplication of the area within the category by its watts per 
square foot allowance, and summarized the actual watts in use within 
these categories. Audits were generally completed by technicians 
within the company. 



It can be noted from the Lighting Code Table below that the space 
usages were given a watts per sguare foot allowance based upon the 
lighting needs of that area. The Category A allowance was assigned 
to spaces reguiring the most illumination and the greatest attention to 
operating environment, while the Category D allowance was 
assigned to indoor parking areas, in which a relatively low 
footcandle level is sufficient. The Lighting Code also applied to the 
outdoor parking areas and perimeter lighting of regulated buildings. 

Lighting Code Table* 

Category A 3.0 Watts Per Square Foot 

Office areas, clerical areas, drafting rooms, conference rooms, 
kitchens, laboratories, classroom areas, bookstacks, library reading 
areas, merchandising areas, valance and display lighting 

Category B 1.0 Watts Per Square Foot 

Active storage areas, restrooms, auditoriums, dining areas, 
stairways, enclosed shopping mall concourse areas, hospital 
bedrooms, working corridors 

Category C 0.5 Watts Per Square Foot 

Corridors, inactive storage areas, lobbies, elevator foyers 

Category D .25 Watts Per Square Foot 

Indoor parking 

Category E 5.0 Watts Per Linear Foot 

Building perimeter (wall wash, facade, canopy) 

Category F .10 Watts Per Square Foot 

Outdoor parking 

*A complete table is included in Appendix B 

Compliance with the Lighting Code was determined by comparing 
the total interior and exterior connected load with the budgets. 
Owners of existing buildings who submitted audits over the limits of 
the Code were required to submit an implementation plan indicating 
how and when the building would comply with the budget. It was felt 
that this approach provided adequate illumination, an effective 
enforcement mechanism, minimal interpretive issues and maximum 
energy savings. A sample audit form and a reprint of the regulation 
are included in Appendix B. 

It should be emphasized that the State Building Code Commission 
has no regulatory authority to enforce the Lighting Code or any 
other Building Code regulation; the power of enforcement resides 
with the local building officials. The Commission staff play an 
assistance role to the building departments by acting as a data 
collection and information source. 



Code Evaluation and Amendments 

Since the effective date of the Code, the State Building Code 
Commission and its staff have been involved with the evaluation of 
this regulation. This process has included both an in-house 
evaluation and a consultant's analysis of the watts per square foot 
approach and the appropriateness of the allowances placed on 
various space usages. As a result, the Lighting Code was amended 
in 1980, changing the requirements for both new construction and 
existing buildings. 

A major change to the Code was the assignment of a display bonus 
for retail stores and museums. This bonus allowed for the addition of 
50,000 watts or an allowance of 6.5 watts per square foot for the 
Category A space — whichever was less. This bonus brought the 
Code into closer alignment with the realities of retail store lighting. 

The analysis of the Code also indicated that the watts per square foot 
allowance for the Category A space was excessive and that the 
Category C allowance was, at best, a very difficult value to meet. As 
a result, the selection of the Lighting Code affecting new 
construction, additions, and renovations was altered as follows: 

1 . The Category A allowance was reduced from 3.0 to 2.5 watts per 
square foot 

2. The Category C allowance was raised from .5 to 1.0 watts per 
square foot 

Generally, it was felt that the section of the Lighting Code for 
existing buildings should remain the same since any change in the 
Code would result in an excess burden for owners of existing 
buildings. 



Data File 



Collection and Review Techniques 

The staff informed building owners of the existence of the Lighting 
Code and its reguirements through trade association publications 
and other news media. In addition, 20,000 brochures were 
distributed in 1978 to businesses included on mailing lists of utility 
companies and trade associations. The brochure included audit 
forms, a reprint of the regulation, and directions for completing the 
forms. 

In 1979, the staff began several projects to increase compliance. For 
example, state energy conservation grants for the retrofit of state and 
local government buildings were made contingent upon the 
submittal of a lighting audit, and private companies were contacted 
directly by the Commission staff. 

All audits received by the staff were reviewed manually via the 
following procedure: 

1 . The sguare footage and wattage figures on the summary sheet 
were compared with the information on the detail sheets. 

2. The watt per unit column on the detail sheets was reviewed to 
verify the inclusion of the ballast wattage. 

3. The sguare footage and wattage figures on the detail sheets were 
added to verify the totals. 

4. Audits not accurately completed were corrected or returned with 
a form letter indicating the difficulty. 

In addition, interns were hired to perform site surveys of randomly 
selected buildings. In general, it was found that there was a high 
degree of correlation between the information reported on the audit 
and the actual lighting system. However, it should be noted that the 
site visits also indicated that many buildings were brought into 
compliance while completing the audit, thereby reducing the degree 
of inefficiency present in these buildings prior to this regulation. 

Creation of the Data Base 

In late 1978, lighting audits for existing buildings began to flow into 
the office of the State Building Code Commission; the process to 
collect audits for new construction began in late 1979. Because of the 
volume of audits received and the need for an efficient means of 
determining audit submittal and compliance, the staff chose to 
process the audits at the time of submittal using a computer system. 
There was no attempt to update the audit data for a particular 
building in order to include retrofit measures or modifications. 



Since the Lighting Code is enforced by local building officials, it was 
imperative that the computer system be capable of selecting and 
organizing the audits by town. To accomplish this, each municipality 
was given a three digit number based upon an alphabetical listing. 
Secondly, all audits were given a five digit seguence number to 
enable cross-referencing between the files — which were organized 
by seguence number within each municipality — and the data in the 
computer file. 

Another piece of information sought by the staff was an 
understanding of the compliance and watts per square foot results for 
different building use groups. The staff arrived at eight building 
groups and assigned each one a two digit code as follows: 

01 office building 06 Recreational/sports 

02 office/warehouse 07 hotel/motel/apartment 

03 retail less than 5,000 sf 08 parking 

04 hospital 09 miscellaneous 

05 school/library 10 retail greater than 5,000 sf 

All audits were entered into the computer file by recording the 
information from the audit summary sheet: company name, building 
location, building superintendent, square footage of building by 
category, and connected load by category. 

The computer file does not include wattage allowed figures or the 
total interior and exterior square footage or connected load; these 
figures are calculated through computer programming. 

Validity of the Data Base 

The Massachusetts lighting audit data base contains 9,300 audits 
which were screened for errors by computer programming; any 
audit which did not meet the parameters established by the staff was 
placed in a separate computer file. The staff compared the records in 
this file to the original audits to verify accuracy before adding them 
to the data base. Some audits are outliers in terms of watts per square 
foot. However the large size of the data base and the infrequency of 
these extremes does not impair the statistical analysis. 

The most unreliable data collected are the results of Category E. This 
category was given the allowance of five watts per linear foot for 
perimeter and facade lighting. The change from square feet to linear 
feet seems to have confused or inconvenienced many building 
owners who included the wattage used in the category but did not 
indicate the building perimeter. Any attempt by the staff to complete 
the audit through phone contact proved futile and the Category E 
wattage information had to be deleted from the record in these cases. 



6 



Many results for Category E were also invalidated by the fact that 
many building owners included an incorrect measurement of the 
perimeter by measuring only the section lighted or otherwise 
performing the calculations incorrectly. This is the only category 
judged to have an unacceptable error rate. 

In general, the organization of the data base is functional and 
flexible enough to provide information on lighting power use in 
different building types and categories for the following reasons: 

1 . The assignment of a building use code allows for the manipulation 
of the data on the basis of building function. 

2. Major space distinctions are separated by the category 
breakdown. 

3. The identification of sguare footage and wattage figures by 
category allows for the manipulation of the data within individualized 
parameters. 

Because the Massachusetts Lighting Code was based on the 
establishment of a building budget, the watts per sguare foot results 
are not overly affected by the allowances placed on the categories. 
This fact contributes to the data base as a representation of the 
lighting levels and the bulb types selected by building owners and 
designers; it is anticipated that a Code based on room-to-room or 
category compliance would result in data closely packed around the 
allowance value. Thus, the average watts per sguare foot values for 
Category A spaces, are for the most part, substantially lower than the 
allowance. Similarly the average values for Category C are higher 
than the allowance for existing buildings. 



Statistical Summary 



The data presented in this report and the information provided on 
the computer tape are designed to provide building owners, 
designers, and consultants with a better understanding of lighting 
practices in commercial buildings. The following information is 
presented in the statistics: 

1 . A comparison of the watts per sguare foot results for different 
buildings use groups. 

2. A comparison of the watts per sguare foot results for various 
categories of space usage. 

3. A comparison of the standard deviation of various space usages 
and among categories. 

In general, the data base created by the Massachusetts State 
Building Code Commission to determine the Lighting Code 
compliance status of buildings can be used to draw conclusions on 
energy usage in lighting practices. In fact, it is possible to go 
beyond the analysis presented in this report to obtain more specific 
watts per sguare foot information. Also, in cases where a lighting 
system can be generalized, additional computer modeling can 
determine typical footcandle levels. 

The State Building Code Commission has made the data base 
available through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). 
The data on tape includes seguence number, town, building use 
code, and the sguare footage and wattage figures by category for all 
building audits processed since the beginning of the project through 
December, 1980 — approximately 9,300 existing building audits. 

Format 

The statistics available from the data base arrange the watts per 
sguare foot results by category within each of the building use 
groups. Separate calculations were done for existing buildings and 
for new construction, additions, and renovations. Three 
computations were completed for each category of the ten buildings 
use groups: the mean (average), the median, and the standard 
deviation. All statistics are included in Appendix A. 



8 



It is important to note that the statistics for new construction also 
include audits for small additions and rehabilitated spaces. Also, the 
smallness of the sample has resulted in some data being weighted in 
favor of a particular designer's or company's specifications. 
Therefore, the data is presented to provide the reader with a general 
overview of lighting trends within the confines of a regulated 
building. 

Much of the data is extrapolated from the statistical analysis onto data 
charts. These bar graphs arrange the data both by building type and 
by category and emphasize the first three categories of space usage 
(categories A, B, and C) and the following building types: office 
buildings, office/warehouses, schools, hospitals, retail stores less 
than 5,000 sguare feet, and retail stores greater than 5,000 
sguare feet. 

The Building Summaries contain a visual representation of the data 
within a particular building use group. Since the graphs indicate the 
median, the standard deviation, and the range as well as the mean 
(average), it is possible to use the results as indicators of a typical 
lighting system and to generalize the data on the basis of the 
uniformity within a particular category. 

Other data gathered for the Building Summaries include a 
breakdown of the averge building sguare feet by category of usage 
and typical retrofit measures. It is interesting to note that in all cases, 
relamping to energy efficient bulbs is practiced in at least 50 percent 
of the circumstances; retail stores have the greatest propensity to 
relamp while office/warehouses and office buildings consider 
delamping as the only effective alternative in over one-third of 
the cases. 

The Category Summaries allow for the comparison of the watts per 
sguare foot values for different buildings within a specific category. 
It is important to note that the graphs for the B and C categories are 
based on scales which differ from those presented in the Building 
Summaries and for the Category A chart. This has been done to 
more closely represent the significance of the mean and the standard 
deviation. Through this analysis, it is possible to determine the 
importance of lighting within various space usages and to compare 
lighting power levels among different building use groups. 

Data Evaluation 

The summaries indicate that, for the most part, buildings are more 
consistently lighted in the Category A spaces. This category has the 
lowest standard deviation and is most likely to have identical mean 
and median values. The data for school buildings is a good example 
of this: Category A is very consistent while Categories B and C show 
a proportionally higher standard deviation. Also, in both cases, the 
median figure is smaller than the mean, indicating that the data is 
weighted toward the lesser watts per square foot values. 



Small retail stores show almost no pattern in Category A; the 
standard deviation is high and there is a significant discrepancy 
between the mean and the median. A review of the actual data 
indicates that the values in Category A encompass almost the entire 
scale at significant levels. This would seem to demonstrate that the 
lighting systems are associated with circumstances beyond the 
building use group breakdown presented in this graph. 

Although the statistics for the Category A space is small retail stores 
cannot be used to justify the appropriateness of the mean as an 
indicator of lighting power efficiency, a review of the data illustrates 
that small retail stores use much more power than large retail stores 
in the merchandising areas. The explanation for this seems to be a 
function of both the variance in the coefficients of utilization (the 
effects of room cavity ratio, bulb type, reflectances) and the need for 
localized lighting in small boutique-like environments. What is 
interesting to compare though are the B and C categories; while 
there is some justification of higher wattage because of lower room 
cavity ratios, there is little justification for the large differences 
apparent in the categories. 

The Category Summaries graphically compare the results of 
Categories A, B, and C in office buildings, off ice/ warehouses, and 
schools. While it can be generalized that the lighting needs are 
similar in these three building use groups, office buildings use the 
most power. The difference in the power use between offices and 
schools of .3 watts per square for Category A becomes a significant 
figure when taken in conjunction with the data distribution 
approximately 75 percent of the data for schools is below or equal to 
the average figure in offices. The same conclusion can be made 
when comparing the mean, median, and standard deviation in the 
other categories. 

Conclusion 

This report has provided a summation of data collected through a 
regulatory process to conserve energy in commercial buildings. It is 
believed that this data is representative of the actual lighting systems 
installed in commercial buildings in Massachusetts. 

This report does not seek to judge the energy efficiency of buildings, 
the approach taken by Massachusetts in developing a Code, or the 
watts per square foot values assigned to the use categories. Rather, it 
is hoped that the information can be used to assess the state-of-the- 
art of lighting in relation to its energy usage, to determine future 
actions of business and government, and to provide information 
necessary to ascertain the effects of lighting on building energy 
performance. 



10 



Tables 

Watts Per Square Foot Results 




Legend 



Range 



Standard Deviation 



O Mean 



Median 



11 



TABLE I - OFFICE BUILDING 



Existing Buildings 

Category 



A 



B 



C 




Watts Per Square Foot 



■ 

■ 
■ 

1 2\ 3 


4 5 



6 



Average Square Feet 



Category A 
Category B 
Category C 



35,886 
8,996 
7,431 



69% 
17% 
14% 



Average Building 52,313 
Size 



Typical Retrofit Measures 



Delamp 
Relamp 
Combination 



37% 
39% 
24% 



New Construction 

Category 



B 



C 




Watts Per Square Foot 







■ 




BOB 




■ 




HBflfl 


1 


i 


■ 

2 



12 



TABLE II - OFFICE/WAREHOUSE 



Existing Buildings 

Category 



A 




B 




C 




0| 1 

Watts Per Square Foot 



3 



Average Square Feet 



Category A 
Category B 
Category C 



17,132 

37,502 

9,318 



27% 
59% 
14% 



Average Building 63,952 
Size 



Typical Retrofit Measures 



Delamp 


46% 


Relamp 


14% 


Combination 


40% 



New Construction 

Category 



A 




B 




C 








1 



Watts Per Square Foot 



2 



13 



TABLE III -SCHOOLS 



Existing Buildings 

Category 



A 



B 






0| l| 

Watts Per Sguare Foot 



3 



Average Square Feet 



Typical Retrofit Measures 



Category A 
Category B 
Category C 


33,615 = 

11,041 = 

9,712 = 


62% 
20% 
18% 


Delamp 
Relamp 
Combination 


14% 
57% 
29% 


Average Building 
Size 


54,368 








New Construction 










Category 











B 






(J 



1 



Watts Per Square Foot 



6 



14 



TABLE IV -HOSPITALS 



Existing Buildings 

Category 



A 





B 




C 







1 



Watts Per Square Foot 



Average Square Feet 



Category A 
Category B 
Category C 



24,768 

29,671 

9,393 



39% 
46% 
15% 



Average Building 63,832 
Size 



Typical Retrofit Measures 



Delamp 


25% 


Relamp 


75% 


Combination 


0% 



New Construction 

Category 



A 




B 




C 



0| ll 

Watts Per Square Foot 



15 



TABLE V - RETAIL LESS THAN 5.000 SQUARE FEET 

Existing Buildings 

Category 



A 



B 






C 








1 



Watts Per Square Foot 



Average Square Feet 



Typical Retrofit Measures 



Category A 
Category B 
Category C 


1,878 = 
585 = 
401 = 


66% 
20% 
14% 


Average Building 
Size 


2,864 




New Construction 






Sample Size Too Smal 







Delamp 


9% 


Relamp 


20% 


Combination 


71% 



16 



TABLE VI - RETAIL GREATER THAN 5,000 SQUARE FEET 



Existing Buildings 

Category 



A 




B 




C 








1 



Watts Per Square Foot 



Average Square Feet 



Category A 
Category B 
Category C 



28,469 

14,335 

2,187 



62% 

31% 

7% 



Average Building 44,991 
Size 



New Construction 

Sample Size Too Small 



3 



Typical Retrofit Measures 



Delamp 


14% 


Relamp 


57% 


Combination 


29% 



17 



TABLE VII -CATEGORY A 



Building Type 
Office Building 




Off ice/ Warehouse 




School/Library 




Hospital 




Retail 

Less Than 5,000 

Square Feet 




Retail 

Greater Than 5,000 

Square Feet 




0| 11 

Watts Per Square Foot 



18 



TABLE VIII - CATEGORY B 



Building Type 
Office Building 




Off ice/ Warehouse 




School/Library 




Hospital 




Retail 

Less Than 5,000 

Square Feet 




Retail 

Greater Than 5,000 

Square Feet 




01 .5| 

Watts Per Square Foot 



1.0 



1.5 



2.0 



2.5 



3.0 



19 



TABLE IX - CATEGORY C 

Building Type 



Office Building 




Office/ Warehouse 




School/Library 




Hospital 




Retail 

Less Than 5,000 

Square Feet 




Retail 

Greater Than 5,000 

Square Feet 




0| .5| 

Watts Per Square Foot 



1.0 



1.5 



2.0 



2.5 



3.0 



20 



Appendix A 

Watts Per Square Foot Statistics 



21 



Office (01) - Existing 









Category 










A 


B 


C 


t> 


E 


F 


Medi an 


2.2 


1. 2 


1.1 


0.4 


3.3 


0.1 


Mean 


2.2 


1.4 


1.3 


0.5 


3.9 


0.2 


Standard Deviation 


0.7 


0.7 


0.8 


0.4 


3.2 


0.7 


Maximum 


4.7 


3.9 


4.4 


1.8 


19.5 


8.3 


Minimum 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 



22 



Office (01) - New Construction 











Category 












A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


Median 




2.0 


1.2 


1.2 


0.0 


2.4 


0.1 


Mean 




1.9 


1.3 


1.3 


0.0 


2.9 


0.1 


Standard 


Devi at ion 


0.5 


0.6 


0.7 


0.0 


1.9 


0.1 


Maximum 




2.8 


2.9 


2.6 


0.0 


6.3 


0.4 


Minimum 




0.9 


0.5 


0.3 


0.0 


0.7 


0.1 



Office/Warehouse (02) - Existing 









Category 










A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


Medi an 


2.1 


0.8 


0.9 


0.3 


2.7 


0.1 


Mean 


2.2 


0.9 


1.1 


0.6 


2.9 


0.1 


Standard Deviation 


0.9 


0.5 


0.8 


0.5 


1.8 


0.2 


Maximum 


5.0 


2.8 


4.2 


2.2 


10.8 


1.7 


Minimum 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 



Office/Warehouse (02) - New Construction 









Category 










A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


Median 


2.0 


1.0 


1.1 


0.0 


*3.8 


0.0 


Mean 


2.0 


1.0 


1.1 


0.0 


3.8 


0.0 


Standard Deviation 


0.5 


0.3 


0.6 


0.0 


0.8 


0.0 


Maximum 


2.8 


1.4 


2.5 


0.0 


5.0 


0.0 


Minimum 


1.3 


0.5 


0.3 


0.0 


2.7 


0.0 



Retail Less than 5*000 SF (03) - Existing 









Category 










A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


Median 


2.9 


1.6 


1.5 


3.2 


5.0 


0.1 


Mean 


3.4 


1.7 


1.9 


3.2 


7.8 


0.1 


Standard Deviation 


1.7 


0.9 


1.4 


0.2 


7.4 


0.4 


Maximum 


9.5 


5.2 


6.7 


3.4 


37.5 


0.9 


Mi nimum 


0.1 


0.2 


0.3 


3.1 


1.2 


0.1 



Retail less than 5/000 SF (03) - New Construction 













Category 














A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


Median 






2.9 


1.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Mean 






2.9 


1.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Standard 


Deviat 


ion 


0.1 


0.1 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Maximum 






3.0 


1.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Mi nimum 






2.8 


0.9 

Hospital 


0.0 

(04) - Exi 
Category 


0.0 
sting 


0.0 


0.0 








A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


Median 






1.7 


1.0 


1.0 


0.3 


2.7 


0.1 


Mean 






1.7 


1.2 


1.1 


0.5 


3.0 


0.1 


Standard 


Deviat ion 


0.6 


0.5 


0.7 


0.5 


2.0 


0.2 


Maximum 






3.9 


2.9 


4.0 


1.6 


10.1 


1.2 


Minimum 






0.1 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 



Hospital (04) - New Construction 

Category 

BCD 



Median 


1.8 


1.5 


1.5 


0.0 


2.8 


0.1 


Mean 


2.1 


1.6 


1.7 


0.0 


2.8 


0.1 


Standard Deviation 


0.6 


0.4 


1.3 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Maximum 


3.0 


2.1 


3.4 


0.0 


2.8 


0.1 


Minimum 


1.7 


1.3 


0.5 


0.0 


2.8 


0.1 



23 



School/Library (05) - Existing 









Category 








A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


Median 


1.8 


1.2 


0.9 


0.7 


2.4 


Mean 


1.8 


1.3 


1.0 


0.9 


3.1 


Standard Deviation 


0.6 


0.6 


0.6 


0.7 


3.1 


Max imum 


4.0 


3.8 


3.7 


3.0 


27.1 


Minimum 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 



24 



School/Library (05) - New Construction 
Category 
A B C D E 



Median 


1.9 


1.0 


0.8 


0.2 


2.7 





Mean 


1.8 


1.3 


1.2 


0.2 


2.8 


1 


Standard Deviation 


0.4 


0.7 


0.9 


0.1 


1.8 


2 


Maximum 


2.4 


3.0 


3.6 


0.3 


5.0 


4 


Minimum 


1.1 


0.6 


0.4 


0.1 


0.3 






Recreational/Sports (06) - Existing 

Category 
BCD 



Median 


1.4 


1.1 


1.1 


0.8 


3.2 


Mean 


1.5 


1.2 


1.2 


0.8 


3.6 


Standard Deviation 


0.7 


0.5 


0.6 


0.8 


2.7 


Maximum 


3.3 


2.8 


3.7 


1.4 


17.3 


Minimum 


0.3 


0.3 


0.1 


0.3 


0.1 



Recreational/Sports (06) - New Construction 









Category 








A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


Median 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Mean 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Standard Deviation 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Maximum 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Minimum 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 



Hotel/Motel/Apartment (07) - Existing 
Category 

A B C D E F 

Median 1.4 1.0 0.8 0.2 1.8 0.1 

Mean 1.5 1.1 0.9 0.2 2.5 0.1 

Standard Deviation 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.2 2.2 0.1 

Maximum 3.5 2.6 2.7 0.5 10.0 0.9 

Minimum 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 

Hotel/Motel/Apartment (07) - New Construction 













Categor 


y 














A 


B 


C 




D 


E 


F 


Median 






1.2 


0.7 


0.9 




0.1 


1.5 


0.1 


Mean 






1.2 


1.0 


0.9 




0.1 


1.6 


0.3 


Standard 


Devi at 


i on 


0.4 


0.5 


0.4 




0.0 


1.3 


0.3 


Max imum 






2.1 


2.2 


1.9 




0.1 


4.7 


1.0 


Minimum 






0.6 


0.5 
Park 


0.4 

ing (08) - 

Categor 


Exi 
y 


0.1 
sting 


0.2 


0.1 








A 


B 


C 




D 


E 


F 


Medi an 






1.4 


1.0 


0.9 




0.3 


3.6 


0.1 


Mean 






1.5 


1.2 


1.2 




0.3 


4.0 


0.2 


Standard 


Deviat ion 


0.7 


0.6 


0.9 




0.1 


2.8 


0.3 


Max imum 






3.6 


3.0 


4.5 




0.7 


12.4 


2.2 


Minimum 






0.4 


0.3 


0.1 




0.1 


0.1 


0.1 



Parking (08) - New Construction 
Category 
BCD 



Median 


1.2 


0.8 


0.8 


0.3 


0.2 


0.0 


Mean 


1.0 


0.8 


0.8 


0.3 


0.2 


0.0 


Standard Deviation 


0.4 


0.4 


0.4 


0.1 


0.0 


0.0 


Max imum 


1.3 


1.3 


1.1 


0.4 


0.2 


0.0 


Minimum 


0.4 


0.4 


0.6 


0.2 


0.2 


0.0 



25 



Miscellaneous (09) - Existing 









Category 










A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


Median 


1.5 


1.1 


1.1 


0.5 


3.1 


0.1 


Mean 


1.7 


1.3 


1.3 


0.5 


3.8 


0.2 


Standard Deviation 


0.8 


0.8 


0.9 


0.3 


3.5 


0.2 


Maximum 


5.2 


4.3 


6.0 


1.3 


22.0 


1.0 


Minimum 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 



Miscellaneous (09) - New Construction 



Category 



Median 


1.6 


1.0 


1.0 


0.5 


3.4 


0.1 


Mean 


1.7 


1.1 


1.1 


0.5 


3.7 


0.1 


Standard Deviation 


0.6 


0.4 


0.5 


0.6 


3.1 


0.0 


Maximum 


3.1 


1.9 


2.6 


0.9 


12.7 


0.1 


Minimum 


0.9 


0.5 


0.4 


0.1 


0.3 


0.1 



Retail Greater than 5/000 SF (10) - Existing 









Category 










A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


Median 


2.4 


1.0 


1.0 


0.3 


4.0 


0.1 


Mean 


2.4 


1.1 


1.3 


0.4 


4.9 


0.1 


Standard Deviation 


0.9 


0.6 


1.0 


0.8 


4.0 


0.2 


Maximum 


6.0 


3.7 


5.1 


1.2 


21.5 


1.8 


Minimum 


0.2 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 



Retail Greater than 5/000 SF (10) - New Construction 
Category 
A B C D E 



Median 


0.8 


1.3 


0.0 


0.0 


0.9 


0.0 


Mean 


0.8 


1.3 


0.0 


0.0 


0.9 


0.0 


Standard Deviation 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Maximum 


0.8 


1.3 


0.0 


0.0 


0.9 


0.0 


Minimum 


0.8 


1.3 


0.0 


o.n 


0.9 


0.0 



26 



Appendix B 

Lighting Power Audit Forms, 
Brochure and Regulation 



27 



Lighting Power Audit Forms 



State 

Building Code 
Commission 

Lighting 

Power 

Audit 

Summary Sheet' 



Project Bldg. Name: 
1 nnatinrr 














Rnilriing 1 Iqp- 


SnhmittpH hy 


Dnew 


Drenov. Dadd. 


□ exist. 


AHrlrps<;' 


Tplpphnnp Nn 






D Owner 


D Tenant 



Category 


Total Area/ 
Category 


Allowance/ 
Sq.ft. 


Total 
Watts Allowed 


Total 
Connected Load 












see note 


A 




3.0 e 

2.5 n 






B 




1.0 






C 




0.5 e 
1.0n 






D 




0.25 






Interior 
Total 




— 






E 




5.0" 






F 




0.1 






Exterior 
Total 




— 







Note: If eligible for additional allowance according to Section 
2012 4.1 or 2015.7.1 declare so by designating: 

H — Modification due to height allowance 

AM — Modification due to merchandising allowance (bonus 
of 50,000 watts or allowance of 6.5 w/sf — whichever 
is less) 

e — existing buildings 

n — new construction 

•Reter lo Article 20. Slate Building Code 
"Per Linear Foot 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
State Building Code Commission 
1 Ashburton Place. Room 1305 
Boston. MA 02108 
(617) 727-6916 



CERTIFICATION: 

This is to certify that to the best of my knowledge this audit 
accurately represents the connected load in this building. 



NAME. TITLE 



SIGNED 



DATE 



28 



Brochure 



MASSACHUSETTS BUILDING CODE 



CONNECTED POWER ALLOWANCE FOR LIGHTING TABLE 1 



NEW 

CONSTRUCTION 
SECTION 2012.0 



INTERIOR 



EXISTING 
BUILDINGS 
SECTION 2015.0 



2.5 



1.0 



A Q athletic facilities banking areas boiler rooms 
^ bookstacks classrooms clerical areas 

combined kitchen and dining areas conference rooms 
day care activity areas drafting rooms examining rooms 
hotel and motel guest rooms (existing buildings only) kitchens 
laboratories library reading rooms mechanical rooms 
merchandising areas museum display areas office areas 
outside sales areas valance and display case lighting 

B active inventory storage assembly areas auditoriums 
book storage areas churches dining areas 
enclosed shopping mall concourse areas 
filing areas of offices hospital bedrooms 
hotel and motel guest rooms (new construction only) 
laundry areas locker rooms rest rooms 
shipping and receiving areas spectator areas stairways 
transportation terminals waiting areas 
working corridors in prisons and hospitals 



3.0 



1.0 C 



corridors 
lobbies 



elevators foyers inactive storage areas 



1.0 



0.5 



0.25 D 



indoor parking 



0.25 



EXTERIOR 



5.0 E 2 
0.10 F 



building perimeter (wall wash, facade, canopy) 



outdoor parking 



5.0 
0.10 



Notes: 

1 . allowances measured in watts per square foot 

2. allowance measured in watts per linear foot 

3. special allowance (see summaries of changes) 



29 



Regulation 



SECTION 2015.0 LIGHTING POWER LIMITS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 

2015.1 Scope: This section establishes the maximum power limits for 
interior and exterior illumination systems for existing buildings. 

2015.2 Regulated buildings: The provisions in Section 2015.0 shall apply 
to all existing buildings and structures with a gross floor area in excess 
of ten thousand (10,000) square feet. 

2015.3 Existing buildings: For the purposes of Section 2015.0, existing 
buildings shall be defined as all buildings and structures in existence on 
July 1, 1978, and buildings and structures for which a building permit has 
been issued prior to July 1, 1978. 

2015.4 Exempt buildings: The following buildings are exempt from the 
provisions of this section: 

1. buildings in use groups R-3 and R-4 (one- and two-family); 

2. the dwelling unit portion of use group R-2 (multi-family); and 

3. the manufacturing portion of industrial plants. 

2015.5 Lighting power limit: The lighting power limit is the upper 
limit of the power to be available to provide the lighting needs of a 
building. Separate lighting power limits shall be calculated for the 
building interior and for the building exterior. The building owner 
shall maintain the building lighting within the lighting power limit. 

2015.6 Lighting switching: In all areas exterior to the building, 
lighting fixtures shall be capable of being switched automatically for 
non-operation when natural light is available. 

2015.7 Calculation procedure: To establish the lighting power limit, 
the following procedure set forth in Sections 2015.7.1 through 2015.7.3 
shall be used : 

2015.7.1 Interiors: 

1. Determine the use categories for the various parts of the building 
from Table 2015. 

2. Multiply the maximum power limit for each category by the area 
included in that category. 

3. Add the total number of watts for each area to arrive at the total 
lighting power limit for the building. 

4. In open concept office spaces in excess of two thousand (2,000) 
square feet, without defined egress or circulation pattern, 
twenty-five (25) per cent of the area shall be designated as 
Category B. 

5. In rooms with ceiling height in excess of twenty (20) feet, a power 
allowance, in watts per square foot, of an additional two (2) per 
cent per foot of height is permitted, up to a maximum of twice the 
limit in Table 2015. 



30 



6. In retail stores and in museums, an allowance of fifty thousand 
(50,000) watts may be added to the calculated lighting power limit 
for the building interior. However, the data which must be provided 
according to the provisions of Section 2015.9 shall indicate that 
the average watts per square foot of merchandising areas of Category 
A shall not exceed six and one-half (6.5). 

2015.7.2 Exteriors 

1. Facade lighting: Multiply the limit given in Table 2015 by the 
number of linear feet in the building perimeter. 

2. Parking: Multiply the value in Category F in Table 2015 by the 
area to be illuminated. 

2015.7.3 Exceptions: 

1. Task lighting shall not be included in the lighting power limit 
calculation. 

2. Lighting for, but not limited to, clean rooms, sanctuaries in 
religious buildings, and theatrical, television, spectator sports 
and like performances shall not be included in the total building 
limit. There shall be limited access to the controls for such lighting. 

3. Heat lamps in bathrooms of hotel and motel guest rooms shall not be 
included in the total building limit. Such lamps shall be equipped 
with an automatic timer. 

4. Lighting for the examination of patients by health care professionals 
shall not be included in the total building limit. 

5. Sleeping areas of dormitories and patient rooms in nursing homes 
shall not be included in the total building limit. 

2015.8 Alternatives: The lighting power for any interior area my be 
increased or decreased from the values of Table 2015 provided that the 
total interior lighting power limit calculated in Table 2015 is not exceeded. 

2015.9 Documentation 

2015.9.1 Lighting power audit form: Prior to November 1, 1978 a report 
of the lighting power load for every building subject to the previsions 

of Section 2015.0 shall have been submitted to the local building official 
and to the State Building Code Commission by the building owner. The 
report shall indicate for each building area corresponding to one (1) of 
the categories of Table 2015 the existing connected lighting power load in 
watts, the total area, and the average watts per square foot. The report 
shall be made on lighting power audit forms available at local building 
departments or at the office of the State Building Code Commission. 

2015.9.2 Compliance plan: When lighting power loads exceed the limits 
of Section 2015.0, the building owner shall include with his lighting 
power audit an implementation plan indicating how and when the building 
will be brought into compliance with Section 2015.0. Implementation shall 
have been completed by February 1, 1979. 

2015.9.3 Lighting power load certification: Certification of the building 
lighting power load by a registered engineer or architect may be required 
by the building official. 



31